Thursday, 22 September 2011

Tsunami Destroyed Ancient Tamil Nadu...

Tidal Waves & Under-Sea Land Slides that destroyed regions of ancient Tamil Nadu & the first two Tamil Sangams
We all have witnessed during our life time the large destructive Tidal Waves which are known today as the Tsunami (a Japanese Language word meaning "Harbour Waves") hitting the shores of Tamil Nadu and Sri Lanka, in addition to many other South and South-East Asian Countries on the 26th December 2005.

(1) Causes of "Tidal Waves"(Tsunami)
The "Tidal Waves" (Tsunami) are a series of destructive sea waves that moves across the ocean, generated by large and violent Earthquakes (i.e. Vibrations or Tremors) occuring beneath the sea.
These Earthquakes are due to sudden dislocation of the segments of the earth's crust, resulting from the under sea volcanic eruptions (i.e.molten rocks eruptions).

(2) Causes of "Under-Sea Land Slides"(Submarine Avalanches)
The "Under-Sea Landslides" (Submarine Avalanche) are falling or sliding of large masses of the mixture of - soil, rock, and other earth materials from outside the surface of the sea, rapidly into the sea under the force of gravity.

The seabeds wherever the offshore slopes dip steeply enough pose the threat of "Under-Sea Landslides", and sometimes may not even require Earthquakes to touch them off.
They are capable of generating deadly Tsunamis as the surface of the ocean first recedes and then surges forward to crash against the shores.

(3) References to "Tidal Waves" & "Under-Sea Land Slides" in early Tamil Literary Works
From the earliest Tamil literary works belonging to the first and second century Tamil Nadu, namely Iraiyanaar Ahapporul, Kaliththohai, Silappathikaaram, and Manimehalai, we come to know that in the ancient times too there had been massive Tidal Waves which have hit the shores of the Paandiya (Pandiya) country and the Chola country of the then Tamil Nadu of South India, causing very big damages and heavy losses.

At times there have been very ferrocious Tidal Waves that have hit Tamil Nadu, and large areas of the seaside lands and the lands much interior have submerged into the ocean, possibly due to big "Under-Sea Land Slides".

(4) The first known "Under-Sea Land Slides" that affected Tamil Nadu and the First Tamil Sangam
The Paandiya Country of the then Tamil Nadu of South India, had it's capital city in the inland known as the "Adakak Kudumi Maadak Koodal" which means: the Koodal (city) with buildings having golden spires.

Mathurai was the other name of this city of Koodal. It was at this Koodal (or Mathurai) city of the Paandiya country, the first Tamil Sangam (a Tamil Academy) with many Tamil Poets fostering the growth and development of the Tamil Language & Literature under the patronage of the Paandiya kings, was instituted and conducted for many years.

The city of Koodal or "Thenmathurai" being the location of the first Thamil Sangam is confirmed by the follows:

“……Adahak Kudumi Maadak Koodalin munnarach Sangakk kanmaa palahaiyil ……thinthirat pulamai kundihaik kurumuni, puvipuhal maruthang kaviniya Muranjip pathi Mudi nahanithiyin kilavan……”
“……..Muthal Uli iruthiyk kan Then Mathurai yahaththu thalaich sangaththu Ahathithiyanaarrum, Muranjiyoor Mudinagaraayarum…..”

[i]which means: " front of the Koodal with golden spires on the palahai (seat) of the Sangam office, the world famed poet with sweet compositions the sage Mudinaganithi of the Muranji centre......"

" the Uli the Agathiyaaar and Muranjiyoor Mudinagaraayarum.......[/u]"
Silappathikaram - Page 7-8 (U.V.Saminatha Iyer's Edition). Poem found in an old Ola Leaf Manuscript in the house of Sevvur Sittrampalak Kavirayer included in this edition.

It was during the first Tamil Sangam period the ferrocious Tidal Waves of the Sea of a very great magnitude, have hit and destroyed the coastel and far inland areas of the Paandiya country, most possibly due to a very massive Under-Sea Land Slide which sank a very large land mass with many countries, range of mountains, rivers, and forests far south of the present Kumari region (in the south) which all went under sea.

This fact is testified by “Adiyaarkku Nallaar” in his commentry to the Tamil Epic the Silappathikaram, which provides further informations on same as follows:

"......Ak kaalaththu ‘avar naattuth’ Thenpaali mukaththitkku vada ellaiyahiya Pahtruli ennum aartritkum Kumari ennum aartritkum idaiye elunoortru kaavatha vaarum ivattrin neer malivaanena malintha Earl Thenga naadum, Earl Mathurai naadum, Earl Munpaalai Naadum, Earl Pinpaalai Nadum, Earl Kuntra Naadum, Earl Kuna Kaarai Naadum, Earl Kurumpanai Naadum ennum naatpaththu onpathu naadum, Kumari Kollam muthaliya panmalai naadum, kaadum, nathiyum, pathiyum, thadaneer Kumari Vadaperum Kottin ‘karum kadal kondolithalat’ Kumariyahiya Pauvam entru unarha....."

which means: "....In those days between the Thenpaalimukam (southern “seawater” front) of his (Pandiyan's) country, and the northern boundry being the Pahtruli river and the Kumari river, there had been 700 hundred Kaavatham distance and in between which there were forty nine countries, (named) the Earl(seven) ThengaNadu, Earl(seven) Mathurai Nadu, Earl(seven) Munpaalai Naadu, Earl(seven) Kuntra Nadu, Earl(seven) Kunakaarai Nadu, Earl(seven) Kurumpanai Nadu, the country known as Kumarik Kollam of many mountains, the forests, rivers, cities, upto (but not) the northern big mountain range of Kumarik Kodu - were swallowed by the sea......"

Silappathikaram - Puhar Kandam, Venit Kaathai, Page 228
(U.V.Saminatha Iyer's Edition)
From the above reference it is very clear that there had been a large land mass of about 700 Kavatham distance (1750 miles) covering forty nine countries and a region called Kumari Kollam in between the northen mountain range of this landmass known as Kumarik Kodu and its far southern “seawater” front (Thenpaalimugam), having many mountains, forests, rivers and cities.

From same it appears the region just south of Kumarik Kodu was a region called the Kumarik Kollam. In the south of this region have been the Pahruli river, and the Kumari River was close beyond the Pahruli river in it’s south.

In the above reference it is confirmed that these two rivers were the northern boundries of the lost large land mass. It also appears the next two regions beyond Kumarik Kollam would have been the Earl Thenganaadu & Earl Mathurai Nadu.

It appears the Kumarikkodu mountain range and the Pahtruli river escaped this sea disaster while the Kumari river with the major part of Kumari Kollam and the entire land mass south with forty nine countries went under sea. Among these countries which went under sea was the “Earl Mathurai Nadu” which is undoubtedly the "Then Mathurai" (Southern Mathurai) the capital city of the early Pandiya kings which comprised the first Thamil Sangam of the Pandiya country.

This first known Sea destruction cannot be simply estimated as a Tsunami that we have witnessed during our life time. But it appears to be a vast and massive "Under Sea Land Slide - a Submarine Avalanche covering approximately 1750 miles in the southernly direction beyond the the Kumarik Kodu and Pahtruli river gradually sliding into the sea. This is probably the vast landmass the modern Geological Scientists refer to as “Lost Lemuria” or “Kumari Kandam” which was submerged in the sea.

It also appears the great land mass beyond present Kanyakumari district was probably embracing the present Sri Lanka too within, and with this massive "Under-Sea Land Slide" in the south of India it was seperated from the remaining Indian Mainland.

This could be a definite possibility as “Sivatharumoththaram” says at the foot of the Mahendra mountain was the Illankai thesam and that give us a clue that the Mahendra Mountain range extended beyond the present Kanyakumari region along the west of the present Sri Lanka and the Illangai Thesam was on the east of the Mahendra Mountain range at its foot hills which submerged in to the sea leaving back Sri Lanka.

This destruction would have taken place long before the period of the epic story Ramayana. This is confirmed by the reference in the Valmiki Ramayana that the Mahendra mountain range of the then Kumarik Kodu remained almost fully submerged into the sea at the time of Ramayana epic, and only a peak of this range remained on the outside surface during the time of this epic story, and continues to remain even today known as the Mahendragiri (or Mahendra Malai) in the present Kanyakumari district of Tamil Nadu.

This is confirmed by the Valmiki Ramayana as follows.
".......agastyena antare tatra saagare viniveshitaH |
citra saanu nagaH shriimaan mahendraH parvatottamaH || 4-41-20
jaata ruupamayaH shriimaan avagaaDho mahaarNavam |
naanaa vidhaiH nagaiH phullaiH lataabhiH ca upashobhitam || 4-41-21
which means: "There, with its one end verily penned in by Sage Agastya inside the ocean, the fortunate Mt. Mahendra is there, with its marvellous pinnacles and the best among the mountains.." [4-41-20] "That august Mt. Mahendra is completely golden penetrating into ocean and it is glorified with numerous kinds of flowered trees and climbers also... [4-41-21]
Valmihi Ramayana - Kishkindha Kanda - Chapter [Sarga] 41
The sinking of the Mahendra Mountain range into sea, and only one peak remaining is further confirmed by Tamil Saiva Saint Thirumaaligai Thevar in his Thiruvisaippa (of the 9th Thirumurai) as,
".....Aluntha Mahendraththu....."

[which means: the Mahendra Mountain (portion) that never sunk]

The survived peak of the Mahendra mountain range could be seen even today, south of Thaamiraparani river in the present Kanyakumari district, almost midway between the Thirukkurungudi and Bhutapandi having a height of 1,654 Metres (5,425 Ft), and presently called as the Mahendragiri. (Giri is mountain - in Sanskrit, and Malai in Tamil)

Further from the commentery of “Adiyaarkku Nallaar” in Silappathikarem referred above, it is clear the northern most region of this large land mass – the Kumarikkodu range of mountains with Kummarik Kollam and the Pahruli river escaped the wrath of the sea, and from the sequential order of the countries listed above immediately after them, it is clear the Pandiyanadu of that period encompassed the Earl Thenga Nadu and the Earl Mathurai Nadu, from where possibly people would have fled more towards the north to the regions of Kumarik Kollam and the Pahruli river.

Hence we can safely infer that with the gradual submerging of Earl Thenga Nadu and Earl Mathurai Nadu, and with the Pahruli river and Kumarikkkodu escaping the wrath of the sea, the Paandiyan king and the first Tamil Sangam Pulavars and other subjects managed to escape further north to Pahruli river and the Kumarikkodu region, which could have been a definite possibility. The Paandiyan king who was ruling during the end of the first Thamil Sangam was the Kadungkoan which is confirmed by the follows :

“….Thalaich Sangamirunthaar……avarkalaich sangamiree iyinaar Kaichchina Valuthi muthalaha Kadungkoan eeraaha enpaththonpathinmar enba……”
Iraiyanaar Ahapporul - Nakkeeeranaar Urai
Published by Bhavanantham Pillai - Mullai Nilayam Publication

From the same source another reference confirms the first Pandiyan king of second Thamil Sangam was Vendherch (Venther) Cheliyan. Hence it is clear the last Paandiyan king of the first Thamil Sangam the Kadungkoan did not survive the tidal waves with undersea landslides.
(5) The second known "Under-Sea Land Slides" that affected Tamil Nadu and the Second Tamil Sangam

With this loss of the large territories of the Pandiya country, the then king Nediyon moved more towards the north and captured many new regions and made them the new Pandiyan regions, and distributed the captured lands to his subjects who met the loss - but possibly escaped this great tragedy, made him get the title "Nilam Tharu Thiruvit Pandiyan" [which mean: "the Pandiyan who made the kind gesture of lands"]

The Paandiyan king now built his new capital at Kapaadapuram (Kavadam). From the reference in the Valmiki Ramayana it is very clear that the Kapaadapuram the new captial city of the Pandiyas was closer to the sea. This is confirmed by the follows:

"......yuktam Kavaatam Paandyaanaam gataa draksyatha Vaanaraah tatah samudram......"
(which means: "...... having reached Kavaatam of Pandiya ongoing you shall see Vaanarah (Oh! Anuman) then ocean...."]
Valmihi Ramayana - Kishkindha Kanda - Chapter (Sarga) 41

This is further confirmed by the follows.
".......maasil vaan munneer parantha thonnilam aalum kilamaiyodu punarnththa enko vaaliyar im malarthalai ulake......"
[which means: (let) our king (long) live in this wide world, who is ruling with the right to rule the speckless sky - wide seafront ancient land]

Mullaikkali in Kalithithohai refers to a Pandiyan.
Hence the 'wide seafront ancient land' could possibly refer to Kapaadapuram]
Kaliththohai - Mullaikkali - 3rd poem

From the above it is clear the second Pandiyan capital Kapaadapuram was closer to the sea some what east of the present Mathurai. The Pandiyan king with a view of preventing further sea disasters had a festival celeberated for the Sea God and hence he was known as "Munneer Vilavu Nediyon" (Munner Vilavu = Sea (God) celeberation) and also as "Vadivalamba nintra Pandiyan".
In this new city of Kapaadapuram the Paandiyan king establised the second Thamil Sangam which is confirmed by the follows.

"......Irandaam Uliyathakiya Kapaadapuraththin Idai Sangam......."
[which means: "the middle (second) Sangam of the Kapaadapuram of second Uli" (Uli – period after great disaster)]
Silappathikaram - Uraipayiram, Adiyaarkku Nallaar Urai Kaathai, Page 6-7 (U.V.Saminatha Iyer's Edition)

".......Idaich Sangam vinnakam paravu methahu keerththik Kannakan parapit Kapaadapuram enba....."
[which means: "the middle (second) Sangam at Kapaadapuram the land of Kannakan (the Pandiyan) of great fame spreading to the heaven"]
Silappathikaram - Page 7, Poem found in an old Ola Manuscript in the house of Sevvur Sittampalak Kavirayer, (U.V.Saminatha Iyer's Edition)

It was in this second Thamil Sangam at Kapaadapuram (during the Ramayana Epic period) the poet Agaththiyar wrote the treatise on Tamil Grammer known as “Agaththiyar Illakkanam” and some time later the poet Tholkaappianar too wrote a treatise on Tamil Grammer named the “Tholkaappiam” in the presence of the Pandiyan Nediyon also known as Nilam Tharu Thiruvit Pandiyan. This is confirmed from the follows:

"......mahathuvamudaiya Agaththiya Illakkanam vaduvaru kaatchi naduvat sangath Agaththiyar Tholkaappiyath Thamil naal Illakkanam Agaththiyam athanodu pinnaat seitha pirangu Tholkaapiam......"

(which means: "the Naduvar Sangam where the Agaththiya Illakanam of esteem was (staged), to weed off the faults (there the) Agaththiyar and Thokaapiya Thamil sage"
Silappathikaram - Poem found in an old Ola Manuscript in the house of Sevvur Sittampalak Kavirayer, Page 7
(U.V.Saminatha Iyer's Edition)

"........irrandaam Uliyathakiya Kappaadapuraththin idaich Sangaththu Tholkaappiam pulappaduththiya Maakeerthiyaakiya Nilam tharu thiruvit Pandiyan avaikkalaththu Agathiyanaarum, Tholkaappianaarum......???"

[which means: "the middle (second) Sangam of the Kapaadapuram of second Uli where the Nilam tharu thiruvit Pandiyan who brought forth the Tamil Grammer Work the Tholkaappiam, in his auditorium where the Agathiyanaar and Tholkaappianaar were present"
Silappathikaram - Uraipayiram, Adiyaarkku Nallaar Urai Kaathai, Page 7-8
Also include Panambaranar's Paayiram from Tholkaappiam.

“….vada vengadam thenkumari aayidai thamil kurum nalulakaththu….”
“…..Nilam thiruvit Pandiyon avaiyaththu…….”
“….malku neer varaippin iyinthiram niraintha
Tholkaappian enath than peyar thotrip
Palpuhal niruththa padimaiyone….”

This further confirms that Tholkappiam was staged during the time of "Nilan tharu thiruvit Pandiyan"
include Pahruli manalinum palave.
The above was sung by Panambaranar who lived during the time of Netimaiyar. ?????????
Many years after the period of the Ramayana Epic the destructive waves of the sea, again destroyed the Pandiyan capital, on this occasion the Kapaadapuram with the second Thamil Sangam.

This too would have been the destructive fierce Tidal Waves resulting again from a big Under-Sea Land Slides, with the destruction of the Paandiya country with the Paandiyan capital Kapaadapuram with the river Pahruli and some adjoing lands along the coastel regions and the Kumari Range of Mountains (Kumarkikodu) went under sea.

This fact is testified in the great Tamil epic the Silappathikaram as follows:
".........Pahtruli arttrudan pan Malai adukkaththuk Kumarik Kodum kodung kadal kolla
vada thisaik Gangaiyum Imayamum kondu then thisai aanda Thennavan vaali......."
(which means: "....long live the Pandiyan [who, when] the Pahtruli river and the many ranges of mountains of the Kumarik Kodu was swallowed up by the fierce sea, captured the the Ganges [river] and the Himalayas of the north and ruled the south ")
Silappathikaram - Madurai Kandam, Kaadu Kaan Kaathai, Line 19-22, Page 289
(U.V.Saminatha Iyer's Edition)

This is further confirmed by another Sangam period Tamil Literary work Kaliththohai which states as follows.

".....Mali thirai oornthu than mann kadal vowvalin melivintri metsentru mewaar naadu idampadap puliyodu vil neekkip puhal priththa kilar kendai valiyinaal vanakkiya vaadaar seer thenavan....."
(which means: when the sea with many waves rolled and swallowed his lands without depression went further captured the countries of those not subdued to him, removing the tiger and bow flags establised the fame of the kendai (fish) made to worship by his valour the Thennavan of unfading fame)
Kaliththohai - Mullaikkali - 4th poem

Panambaranar ref re Sea tide

(6) The building of the Third capital city and establishment of the third Tamil Sangam by Pandiyan king

It was probably after that the Paandiyans realised the gravity of the natural disasters and built the new capital much interior in the central region of lower South India far away from the sea also known as Mathurai, apparently the present Mathurai where they held the third Thamil Sangam.

As this was the new city of the Paandiyas where the third Thamil Sangam was established bearing the same name as the city where the first Thamil Sangam functioned earlier in the lands in the south which have now submerged into the sea, the Mathurai of the third Thamil Sangam was referred to as the Vada Mathurai (Northern Mathurai) during that period.

This is confirmed by the following:
".....Arung Kadaich Sangam irunthor........puviyit Sangam puhal Vada Mathurai......"
(which means: who were in the unique last (third) this earth the Sangam famed northern Mathurai)
Silappathikaram - Poem found in an old Ola Manuscript in the house of Sevvur Sittampalak Kavirayer, Page 8
(U.V.Saminatha Iyer's Edition)

During the period the Pandiyas establised the third Tamil Sangam at the new Mathurai in the central region of southern India, the Cholas had their capital at Kaviripoompattinam also known as Poompuhar.

(7) The Tidal Waves that affected the Chola capital Kaviripoompattinam of Tamil Nadu
The God Indra was known in Tamil Nadu as the god of ocean during the Ramayana days and the legend holds that God Indra visited on auspiciou days the Kumari region where the Mount Mahendra is situated which is confirmed by the following statement in the Ramayana.

"......tam upaiti sahasraaksah sadaa parvasu parvasu |
dviipah tasya apare paare shata yojana visritah ||...... " 4-41-23
(which means: "The Thousand-eyed Indra always reaches that Mt. Mahendra on every auspicious day... and the other shore is an island with a breadth of hundred yojana-s")
Valmihi Ramayana - Kishkindha Kanda - Chapter [Sarga] 41

The Cholas probably realising the gravity of the sea tides from the experiences of the Paandiya Naadu yearly had a great festival for fourteen days worshiping the ocean god Indra as Indra Vilaa at the ocean front where the Kaveri river joined the sea and where they had built their capital city the Kaviripoompatinam.

The people of Kavirimpoompattinam believed that if the Indra Villa festival is defaulted that they had to meet the wrath of Bootham hence the festival should be conducted.
".......viduththa bootham vilaakkon marappin madiththa sevvaai val eyiri ilanga Idikuran mulakkaththu thedumbai seithidum thoduththa paasaththu tholpathinarakarai pudaiththunnum porunthathaayidum......."

Manimehalai - Villavarai Kaathai , Lines 20-26 Page 13 &14 (U.V.Saminatha Iyer Edition)

From the Silappathikarem we note after the tragedy and death of the heroine Kannahi (Paththini) the Chola kings defaulted in conducting the annual seafront festival to God Indira. This resulted in the Kaviripoompattinam also known as Poompuhar having to face the fierce Tidal Waves of the sea which destroyed this seaport city.

"......Kavirip Pattinam kadal kolu entru thavaththu urai kettu....."
Manimekalai - Kachchimaanahar pukka Kaathai - 28 Line 135-136
".......manangkaval keduththathu Manahar kadal kolla Aravanaadikalum Thayarum aangu vittu irrava ipPathi puhunthathu......."
Manimekalai - Kachchimaanahar pukka Kaathai - 28 Line 80-83

"......Vaanavan vilakkoan maanagar olinthathu Mamimekalatheivam mattrathu poraal anninagar thannai alai kadal kolha ena vittanal saabam patta ithuvat kadavun Managar Kadal kolla peyarntha vadivet thadakkai vaanavan pola virithirai vanthu viyannager vilunga oru thani poyinan ulaka mannavan......"
Manimehalai - Aapuththiranodu Manipallvam adaintha kaathai - 25 page 289 Line 197-204

"Thivaka Santhi Seyya naalun Kaavan Ma nagar Kadal vayiru pukoom Manimekali than vaaimoli yaalathu thaniyaa Indra saabam undaakalin aangu pathiyalithalum eengu pathi keduthalum ventharai yatoi meyena kondik kaasin managar kadal vayiru puhaamal vaasavan vilaa kon maravel"
Manimehalai - Aapuththiranodu Manipallvam adaintha kaathai - 25 page 289 Line 63-69

"Vinnavar Thalaivanai vananki munintru mannaha thentran vaanpathi thannul
meloar vilaiya vilakkol eduththa naal earl naalilum nankinithuraikkena amarar thalaivan aangathu nernthathu"
Manimehalai - Vilaavarai kaathai - 12 page 289 Line 5-9

Indus valley dravidian civilization

Global warming - Must known facts

Certain facts about Earth's climate are not in dispute:

  • The heat-trapping nature of carbon dioxide and other gases was demonstrated in the mid-19th century. Their ability to affect the transfer of infrared energy through the atmosphere is the scientific basis of many JPL-designed instruments, such as AIRS. Increased levels of greenhouse gases must cause the Earth to warm in response.

  • Ice cores drawn from Greenland, Antarctica, and tropical mountain glaciers show that the Earth’s climate responds to changes in solar output, in the Earth’s orbit, and in greenhouse gas levels. They also show that in the past, large changes in climate have happened very quickly, geologically-speaking: in tens of years, not in millions or even thousands.

The evidence for rapid climate change is compelling:

Republic of Maldives: Vulnerable to sea level rise
Republic of Maldives: Vulnerable to sea level rise
Sea level rise
Global sea level rose about 17 centimeters (6.7 inches) in the last century. The rate in the last decade, however, is nearly double that of the last century.

The effects of climate change will likely include more frequent droughts in some areas and heavier precipitation in others.
Global temperature rise
All three major global surface temperature reconstructions show that Earth has warmed since 1880. Most of this warming has occurred since the 1970s, with the 20 warmest years having occurred since 1981 and with all 10 of the warmest years occurring in the past 12 years. Even though the 2000s witnessed a solar output decline resulting in an unusually deep solar minimum in 2007-2009, surface temperatures continue to increase.

The oceans have absorbed much of this increased heat, with the top 700 meters (about 2,300 feet) of ocean showing warming of 0.302 degrees Fahrenheit since 1969.
Warming oceans
The oceans have absorbed much of this increased heat, with the top 700 meters (about 2,300 feet) of ocean showing warming of 0.302 degrees Fahrenheit since 1969.

Flowing meltwater from the Greenland ice sheet
Flowing meltwater from the Greenland ice sheet
Shrinking ice sheets
The Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets have decreased in mass. Data from NASA's Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment show Greenland lost 150 to 250 cubic kilometers (36 to 60 cubic miles) of ice per year between 2002 and 2006, while Antarctica lost about 152 cubic kilometers (36 cubic miles) of ice between 2002 and 2005.

Visualization of the 2007 Arctic sea ice minimum
Visualization of the 2007 Arctic sea ice minimum
Declining Arctic sea ice
Both the extent and thickness of Arctic sea ice has declined rapidly over the last several decades.

The disappearing snowcap of Mount Kilimanjaro, from space.
The disappearing snowcap of Mount Kilimanjaro, from space.
Glacial retreat
Glaciers are retreating almost everywhere around the world — including in the Alps, Himalayas, Andes, Rockies, Alaska and Africa.

Record high temperatures increasing.
Extreme events
The number of record high temperature events in the United States has been increasing, while the number of record low temperature events has been decreasing, since 1950. The U.S. has also witnessed increasing numbers of intense rainfall events.

The carbon dioxide content of the Earth’s oceans has been increasing since 1750, and is currently increasing about 2 billion tons per year. This has increased ocean acidity by about 30 percent.
Thanks: Climate.nasa
Ocean acidification
Since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution, the acidity of surface ocean waters has increased by about 30 percent. This increase is the result of humans emitting more carbon dioxide into the atmosphere and hence more being absorbed into the oceans. The amount of carbon dioxide absorbed by the upper layer of the oceans is increasing by about 2 billion tons per year.
Interesting facts about mount everest

Wednesday, 21 September 2011

Interesting Facts About Mount Everest

  • Mount Everest remains to be the highest mountain on Earth as is measured by its height from the summit, which is above sea level. (8,848 metres)
  • Edmund Hillary along with Sherpa Tenzing Norway was the first to reach the summit of Mount Everest on 29th May, 1953. They reached at 11:30 a.m. and although they attributed the success to the whole group, Tenzing later admitted it was Edmund Hillary who first set his foot on the summit!
  • Mount Everest is a part of the Himalayan range and is located between the Sagarmatha Zone, Tibet, Nepal and China.
  • Mount Everest is known by several other names as well! In Tibet, Mount Everest is known as Chomolungma or Qomolangma. The Chinese translated this as Shèngmǔ Fēng, a name that is rarely used. Locals in Darjeeling named it as Deodungha, which means Holy Mountain.
  • Although Mount Everest is known as the highest mountain, above sea level, records also show other tall mountains on Earth. When measured from the base, Mauna Kea in Hawaii is considered to be the tallest mountain- 10,200 m from base but only 4,205 m above sea level.
  • There are two important routes to climb Mount Everest. One such route is from the southeast ridge from Nepal and the other is the northeast ridge from Tibet. The former is considered to be relatively easier to climb Mount Everest. Apart from these routes, there are other routes, which are not frequently used.
  • The first people who climbed Mount Everest without the use of supplemental oxygen via the southeast ridge were Reinhold Messner and Peter Habeler. They achieved this feat on 8 May 1978.
  • Reinhold Messner also reached the summit of Mount Everest; solo, for the first time on August 20, 1980. He used a rather difficult route this time, through the Northwest side.
  • Here’s another interesting fact about Mount Everest. As per records that belong to the Nepalese Government, it was a 15-year-old Sherpa girl who turned out to be the youngest person to climb Mount Everest. Their records also claim, Samantha Larson, an 18 year old foreigner from California, was the youngest ever foreigner to climb the Mount Everest in 2007.
  • Mount Everest is also home to a very minute black jumping spider. These spiders hide in crevices and feed on frozen insects. Their food depends largely upon what is blown by the wind into the specific area.

  • Reports suggest pilot Didier Delsalle from France set a rotorcraft world record when he landed a Eurocopter AS 350 B3 right at the summit of Mount Everest. This feat was executed on 14 May 2005.
  • Australian climber Christian Stangi was recorded to have made the fastest ascent in 2007. He used the northeast ridge to reach the summit of Mount Everest.
  • Bahadur Sherchan remains to be the oldest climber at 76 years to successfully climb Mount Everest. He achieved this feat on 25 May 2008.
  • Mount Everest was also shrouded in controversy in 2006 when a climber claimed to have passed a distressed climber-David Sharp, who needed help at that moment. This incident caused a furor about the ethics displayed by climbers.
  • Mount Everest has also been the place where many have lost their lives in their goal to reach the summit. A lot of factors affect the ascent such as lack of oxygen, extreme weather, exhaustion, frostbite, situations where in people may have fallen due to the frozen ground etc. During 1996, around 15 people lost their lives while trying to descend from the summit of Mount Everest.
  • No matter what the consequences, not many are deterred from the task of climbing the very famed Mount Everest. These interesting facts only give a glimpse of the hardships faced by the people who have dared to go beyond the ordinary.
Thanks: Buzzle and Google pic

Interesting information Tajmahal

Brahui, Dravidian Origin?

The Brahui people or Brohi people are an ethnic group of about 2.2million people with the majority found in Kalat,Pakistan, but also found insmaller numbers in neighboring Afghanistanand Iran.They are closely linked to the Baloch with whom they have substantiallyintermingled and whose cultural traits they have absorbed. Linguistically, theyspeak the Brahui language, which is a North Dravidian language, but due to itsisolation from the other Dravidian tongues it has considerable Balochivocabulary and even counting begins with Balochi numbers. There is no distinctindigenous script for Brahui; like Balochi it is written in Perso-Arabicalphabet.

Brahui is spoken in the following areas: Merv area of Turkmenistan, Sindh, Zahedan and Zabol inIranian Balochistan, southern parts of Afghanistan, Pakistani Balochistanand with the bulk in the Jhalawan region.

Origins, geography, and demographics

There are two main theories regarding the Brahui that have been proposed byacademics. One theory is that they are an ancient hold-over of some sort ofindeterminate Elamo-Dravidian origin that descended from the people of the Indus Valleycivilization. Another theory is that they are migrants from northern India whoarrived in the region either before the Aryan invasion, but probably before theBaloch. Over the centuries, due to their location, the Brahui have mixed withIranian peoples as well as the Sindhis and other groups and physically andculturally more closely resemble their neighbors rather than the Dravidianpeoples of India.In addition, they are almost entirely Muslim, usually of the Sunni sect.
Generally dominated by various invaders during their history, including theBaloch, the Khans of Kalat, who were of Brahui origin, became rulers in theirown right and dominated Balochistan for decades, while holding off the Persiansuntil the coming of the British in the 19th century.

Brahui language:

The Brahui language is mainly spoken in the Kalat areas of Balochistan,Pakistan, although there isa considerable amount of speakers in Southern Afghanistanand Iranian Balochistan. It includes three dialects including Sarawani (spokenin the north), Jhalawani (spoken in the southeast), and Chaghi (spoken in thenorthwest and west). According to a survey it has about 2,000,000 speakers in Pakistan (1998), 200,000 speakers in Afghanistan and 10,000 speakers in Iran, whichwould amount to 2,210,000 in the world.

Due to its isolation, Brahui'svocabulary is only 15% Dravidian, while the remainder is dominated by Perso-Arabic,Balochi, and Indo-Aryan, while the grammar and overall morphology stillresemble other Dravidian tongues. Brahui is generally written in thePerso-Arabic script and there is even a Roman alphabet that has been developedfor use with Brahui. In Pakistanwhen doing a BA (bachelor of Arts) program, the Brahui Language can be taken asa compulsory subject.

Baloch society is divided in tens of tribes, some tribes speak Brahui and somespeak Balochi, and there are many that speak both. For instance, the Langovtribe ,inhabiting central Balochistan in the Mangochar area, speak Balochi astheir first language and Brahui as second. The Bezenjo tribe that inhabitKhuzdar, Nal and regions of Makran, along with the Muhammadsanis, one of thelargest Baloch tribes, speak both languages. Another example is the Bangulzaitribe which is a Brahui-speaking tribe but the sub-tribe of the Bangulzai, theGaranis, speak Balochi and are known as Balochi speaking Bangulzais. PresentlyBrahui is spoken in Balochistan (Iran),Pakistan, Afghanistan, northern Iran, Turkmanistan, Sindh and GulfArab states.

Another interesting fact is that most of the kings/Khans of Balochistan wereBrahui speakers but their court languages was Balochi.

More detail information about Brahuis from other sources

BRAHUI, a people of Baluchistan, inhabiting the Brahui mountains, which extendcontinuously from near the Bolan Pass to CapeMonze on the Arabian Sea. The khan of Kalat, the native ruler of Baluchistan,is himself a Brahui, and a lineal descendant of Kumbar, former chief of theKumbarini, a Brahui tribe. The origin of the Brahuis is an ethnologicalmystery. Bishop Robert Caldwell and other authorities declare them Dravidians,and regard them as the western borderers of Dravidian India. Others believethem to be Scythians, 1 and others again connect them with Tatar 1 CompareMountstuart Elphinstone's (History of India, 9th ed., 1905, p. 249) descriptionof Scythians with physique of Brahuis.

A relationship between the Jats and theBrahuis has been suggested, and it is generally held that the former were ofScythic stock. The Mengals, Bizanjos and Zehris, the three largest Brahuitribes, are called Jadgal or Jagdal, i.e. Jats, by some of their neighbours.The Zaghar Mengal, a superior division of the Mengal tribe, believe theythemselves came from a district called Zughd, somewhere near Samarkandin central Asia. Gal appears to be acollective mountaineers who early settled in southern parts of Asia. The origin of the word itself is in doubt. It isvariously derived as a corruption of the Persian Ba Rohi (literally "ofthe hills"); as an eponym from Braho, otherwise Brahin or Ibrahim, alegendary hero of alleged Arab descent who led his people "out of thewest," while Dr Gustav Oppert believes that the name is in some wayrelated to, if not identical with, that of the Baluchis.

He recognizes in thename of the Paratas and Paradas, who dwelt in north-eastern Baluchistan,the origin of the modern Brahui. He gives reasons for regarding the Bra as acontraction of Bara and obtains "thus in Barahui a name whose resemblanceto that of the ancient Barrhai (the modern Bhars), as well as to that of theParatas and Paravar and their kindred the Maratha Paravari and DravidianParheyas of Palaman, is striking." The Brahuis declare themselves to bethe aborigines of the country they now occupy, their ancestors coming from Aleppo. For this thereseems little foundation, and their language, which has no affinities withPersian, Pushtu or Baluchi, must be, according to the most eminent scholars,classed among the Dravidian tongues of southern India. Probably the Brahuis are ofDravidian stock, a branch long isolated from their kindred and much Arabized,and thus exhibiting a marked hybridism.

Whatever their origin, the Brahuis are found in a position of considerable power in Baluchistan from earliest times.Their authentic history begins with Mir Ahmad, who was their chief in the 17thcentury. The title of "khan" was assumed by Nasir the Great in themiddle of the 18th century. The Brahuis are a confederacy of tribes possessingcommon lands and uniting from time to time for purposes of offence or defence.At their head is the khan, who formerly seems to have been regarded assemi-divine, it being customary for the tribesmen on visiting Kalat to makeofferings at the Ahmadzai gate before entering. The Brahuis are a nomadic race,who dwell in tents made of goats' hair, black or striped, and live chiefly onthe products of their herds. They are Sunnite Mahommedans, but are notfanatical. In physique they are very easily distinguished from theirneighbours, the Baluchis and Pathans, being a smaller, sturdier people withrounder faces characterized by the flat, blunt and coarse features of theDravidian races.

They are of a dark brown colour, their hair and beards beingoften brown not black. They are an active, hardy race, and though as avariciousas the Pathans, are more trustworthy and less turbulent. Their ordinary dressis a tunic or shirt, trousers gathered in at the ankles and a cloak usually ofbrown felt. A few wear turbans, but generally their headgear is a roundskullcap with tassel or button. Their women are not strictly veiled. Sandals ofdeer or goat skin are worn by all classes. Their weapons are rifles, swords andshields. They do not use the Afghan knife or any spears. Some few Brahuis areenlisted in the Bombay Native Infantry.

Thanks: Baask

Tuesday, 20 September 2011

Weight lose secrets

Trying to lose weight by adopting a low fat diet? Well, you may be committing the biggest mistake of your ''weight loss regime,'' says an Oz  fitness expert.

 Celebrity trainer James Duigan, whose clients include model  Elle Macpherson, said, "I see so many people trying their best and it's just not working because they don't understand that it's not fat that makes you fat, it's sugar and it's carbohydrates."

 "You need a healthy balanced  diet with fish and chicken and meat and vegetables and berries and nuts and things like that. (Low-fat diets) just don't work - it's not sustainable. You need to look at how you can keep yourself happy and healthy throughout your life,"  Stuff  quoted him as saying.

 Duigan, whose second book ''Clean & Lean: Flat Tummy Fast!'' is out, has suggested some small steps one can follow for a flattened stomach.

 Don't overcook your food as you'll kill off or reduce the nutrient content. Try to make sure around 50 per cent of the food on your plate is raw. If you can stomach it, eat all your vegetables raw.

 Don't buy cheap meat - organic meat is more expensive, but it also contains less toxic junk such as antibiotics. If you can afford only one organic thing make sure it's meat.
 Don't eat foods that weaken your abdominal wall, as this will make it slack and lead to a protruding stomach. Foods that can weaken your abdominal wall often contain gluten.

 Avoid sugar, in all its forms, as it fattens your mid-section.

 Make sure you eat enough fibre. A lack of fibre will lead to inflammation in the bowel. Eat plenty of vegetables (ideally raw) and drink at least two litres of still, room temperature water every day.

 Duigan has suggested having the occasional ''cheat'' meal, so you can eat a piece of cake or a brownie and actually help your weight loss.

 "Feed your soul because you can't live your whole life in denial. And it helps the fat-burning process, it can boost your metabolism and get you leaner the next day. The key is to keep it to one meal," he said.

 Another factor for a healthy lifestyle is reducing stress, he added.

Info: Nathan
Pic: Google Pic

12 foods to lose weight

You don't have to acquire a taste for olive oil, seaweed or soya to maintain a low-fat, healthy diet.  Indian cuisine can be healthy too, if it's cooked with oil and ingredients that take care of your heart and health.

 Ayurveda suggests you include all tastes - sweet, sour, salty, pungent, bitter and astringent - in at least one meal each day, to help balance unnatural cravings. Here are 12 foods that can help you lose weight and gain health:

Turmeric  : Curcumin, the active component of turmeric, is an object of research owing to its properties that suggest they may help to turn off certain genes that cause scarring and enlargement of the heart. Regular intake may help reduce low-density lipoprotein (LDL) or bad cholesterol and high blood pressure, increase blood circulation and prevent blood clotting, helping to prevent heart attack.

Cardamom  : This is a thermogenic herb that increases metabolism and helps burn body fat. Cardamom is considered one of the best digestive aids and is believed to soothe the digestive system and help the body process other foods more efficiently.

Chillies  : Foods containing chillies are said to be as foods that burn fat. Chillies contain capsaicin that helps in increasing the metabolism. Capsaicin is a thermogenic food, so it causes the body to burn calories for 20 minutes after you eat the chillies.

Curry leaves  : Incorporating curry leaves into your daily diet can help you lose weight. These leaves flush out  fat and toxins, reducing fat deposits that are stored in the body, as well as reducing bad cholesterol levels. If you are overweight, incorporate eight to 10 curry leaves into your diet daily. Chop them finely and mix them into a drink, or sprinkle them over a meal.

Garlic  : An effective fat-burning food, garlic contains the sulphur compound allicin which has anti-bacterial effects and helps reduce cholesterol and unhealthy fats.

Mustard oil  : This has low saturated fat compared to other cooking oils. It has fatty acid, oleic acid, erucic acid and linoleic acid. It contains antioxidants, essential vitamins and reduces cholesterol, which is good for the heart.

Cabbage  : Raw or cooked cabbage inhibits the conversion of sugar and other carbohydrates into fat. Hence, it is of great value in weight reduction.

Moong dal  : The bean sprouts are rich in Vitamin A, B, C and E and many minerals, such as calcium, iron and potassium. It is recommended as a  food replacement in many slimming programmes, as it has a very low fat content. It is a rich source of protein and fibre, which helps lower blood cholesterol level. The high fibre content yields complex carbohydrates, which aid digestion, are effective in stabilising blood sugar and prevent its rapid rise after meal consumption.

Honey  : It is a home remedy for obesity. It mobilises the extra fat deposits in the body allowing it to be utilised as energy for normal functions. One should start with about 10 grams or a tablespoon, taken with hot water early in the morning.

Buttermilk  : It is the somewhat sour, residual fluid that is left after butter is churned. The probiotic food contains just 2.2 grams of fat and about 99 calories, as compared to whole milk that contains 8.9 grams fat and 157 calories. Regular intake provides the body with all essential nutrients and does not add fats and calories to the body. It is thus helpful in weight loss.

Millets  : Fibre-rich foods such as millets - jowar, bajra, ragi, etc - absorb cholesterol and help increase the secretion of the bile that emulsifies fats.

Cinnamon and cloves: Used extensively in Indian cooking, the spices have been found to improve the function of insulin and to lower glucose, total cholesterol, LDL and triglycerides in people with type 2 diabetes.

Info: Nathan
Pic: Google Pics

Monday, 19 September 2011

International Students at UK - Useful tips

One of the striking features of studying in the UK is that the structured system of written coursework -- labs, projects and regular exams -- encourages you to grasp concepts through active learning and interaction.

Essay based assignments ensured that we read and studied the theory of a topic, while 'practicals' and a two month project in the lab enabled us to learn a variety of 'real-life' scientific techniques and skills.

Usually you are assigned mentors from within the faculty. Don't hesitate to ask them what is required of you in any specific assignment, or if you need guidance in a particular area. They will be more than happy to help!

Also there will always be a student service centre within your university that will try their best to help you in any query, be it extension of visa, finding suitable accommodation or looking for a part-time job hence trying to make your stay there a pleasant one.

Moreover, we were encouraged to contact our professors and other members of the faculty at any time, should any difficulties arise. The library, aptly called the learning centre, was excellent. It was fully equipped with networked computers, printers and photocopiers on each floor, scanners, study rooms, audio visual areas and rooms to practice presentations. The best part was that it would be open 24 hours during weekdays (this facility exists in almost all universities in the UK).

Homesickness can sometimes be an issue, but at the beginning I was so busy exploring and discovering the city and its sights, that I didn't find the time to be lonely. I only missed my parents and felt homesick when I fell ill with the flu.

Comfortingly, international students constitute a good percentage of Sheffield, so I never really felt out of place. Also, Sheffield is considered one of the safest and friendliest cities in the UK.

The university offered a two day orientation programme, exclusively for international students, a week prior to the commencement of our courses. Not only did we get familiarised with the city and the university, we all built great friendships that lasted well beyond graduation.

Moreover, all universities have various clubs and societies like the Indian club, Christian, Hindu and Islamic Societies and many others.

Here are a few tips that students travelling to the UK might appreciate:

  • Note that almost throughout UK (except in London shops and grocery stores close at 6 pm (some even earlier!)
  • Make sure you carry a strip of anti-diarrhoea medicine. When it strikes, it will render you incapable of running even to the nearest pharmacy. Besides they close at 5.30 � 6 pm.
  • Beware of the 'fresher's flu' that hits new students every year! It usually starts in September mainly due to the sudden temperature change that international students face.
  • If you have any pending dental or orthodontic work, finish it off before you leave since NHS (National Health Service) insurance does not cover dental problems. However, in cases of emergency you can always go to a dental college for free treatment. Just be prepared to spend 4-5 hours in the waiting room!
  • Don't buy items like toasters, files and folders and stationery immediately. Instead, get acquainted with the city in the first few days, there are loads of bargain and discount stores where you can buy such stuff for peanuts.
  • If you want to shop for family and friends back home, wait till Christmas. The pre-Christmas sales are really good, but the sales after Christmas make you giddy with ecstasy!
  • When returning after finishing your course, stick to the weight allowance that your airlines provide for luggage. Fines can go up to Rs 1500 per kilo. If you can't avoid it, send the excess stuff through international delivery services. They usually offer good rates.
  • Don't waste your precious money calling back home on the local payphone, that's too expensive. Instead, use call cards like 'Talk India', 'Hello India' etc. that you can find easily at corner shops that are run by Indian, Pakistani or Middle-Eastern owners.
  • One last tip: pack 2-3 packets of instant food (like 2 minute magi noodles) before you fly to your destination in the UK. You will be grateful for it's stomach filling properties till you overcome your jet lag and are able to stock up on groceries.
My final advice to any student travelling to the UK is: don't be afraid to ask!

Things may appear intimidating at the beginning, but once you get used to learning in such a challenging way, you will thoroughly enjoy it.

Thanks: Rediff

Guys, any one coming from India to Birmingham or around then let me know if you are in need of any help. I will do as much as I can to help

Tips for abroad travelers


Part 1..

By: Na. Nandhivarman [Paper presented at the National Seminar on The Indus Valley : A Review of Recent Research organized by the Pondicherry Institute of Linguistics and Culture on 28.9.2003 at the Chief Secretariat Conference Hall and inaugurated by the Pondicherry Education Minister K.Lakshminarayanan and Presided by Dr.Pa.Maruthanayagam, Director of PILC.] Humanity is engaged in an endless quest to unravel the mysteries of Nature. The origin of the human race, the original homeland of the first human being, the first civilization on earth, the birth of the language and its multiciplity and the puzzles of continental drifts, sea floor spreading, etc are some of the fields wherein new evidences are coming out every now and that which makes such a quest towards truth a must for proper construction of the history of the human race. The greatness of the Indus Valley Civilization and various clues that it provides to discover the first civilization on earth needs to be evaluated in the context of changing needs of our times, wherein claims and counter claims or even doctored claims are made to establish the Dravidian or the otherwise content of that civilization. In India Sir John Marshall deserves the credit to be the first scholar to suggest that the language of the Indus Valley civilization was Dravidian. Piero Meriggi in his book “ Zur_Indus Scrift “ (which means On the Indus Script) written in the German language was of the opinion that Brahui, spoken even now in Balochistan, is the Dravidian Language which must be the original language of the Harappans. Henry Heras in his book “ Studies in Proto-Mediterranean Culture “turned more than 1800 Indus texts into Proto-Dravidian sentences. In their book “Proto-Indica: 1979,Report on the investigation of the proto-Indian texts by Yu.V.Knorozov, M.F.Ali Bedil and B.Ya.Volchok have carried out a computer analysis of sign distribution in the Indus texts and had proven beyond an iota of doubt that it belonged to the Dravidian language family. David W.McAlphin in his book “Proto-Elamo-Dravidian and F.C.Southward in his book “The Reconstruction of Prehistoric South Asia language contact” had successfully used the Dravidian roots to reconstruct the language of the Indus Valley. As Dr.Mathivanan had too proven that the Indus script is Dravidian, there is no necessity to question the collective wisdom of all these scholars, yet there are schools of thought, which want to deny the Dravidian roots of the Indus Valley civilization. Let me quote elaborately from Professor Irafan Habib, who puts up a strong case for the Dravidian family language.“ The Dravidian languages constitute the second largest family in India. Tamil, Malayalam, and Kannada belong to the Southern group, Telugu (in Andhra) and Gondi (in widely scattered pockets of Madya Pradesh) to the South Central, Kolami (in Maharastra) to the Central, Kurukh (in Jharkand, Chattisgarh and Nepal) and Brahui (Baluchistan) to the Northern. There are also many minor languages attached to these different groups. Tamil has the longest literary history going back at least to the first century B.C By comparing the vocabularies and grammar of these languages, a hypothetical Proto-Dravidian language can be reconstructed, which, it is assumed, must have been spoken before the speakers of the Dravidian languages separated from each other. The use of certain retroflex sounds (such as hard l, n, r, rh, the tongue having to curl back just under the hard palate in order to pronounce them) is one of the most common traits in the Dravidian languages, while such retroflexion is absent in both Austro-Asiatic and Indo-European languages spoken outside the Indian sub continent. It is therefore a reasonable conjecture that it is Proto-Dravidian or its early successors, from which the Austro-Asiatic and Indo-Aryan languages derive their retroflex consonants. This inference has many consequences. Retroflexion as well as a few words (more than 2 dozen) of possible Dravidian origin are present in the Rigveda. Since retroflexion is totally absent in the Avesta, the earliest Iranian Text, which is very close to Rigveda in vocabulary and grammar, one must assume that Rigveda reciters introduced retroflexion in pronunciation of even the most impeccable Indo_Iranian words, under the influence of the pronunciation of the speakers of the earlier local languages. Since the Rigvedic hymns were composed in the area between the Hindukush and the Ganga, this makes it very likely that some of the substrata languages of Punjab or Upper Indus basin at the time were members of the Dravidian family. The likelihood is increased by the geographical proximity of the Brahui language, whose speakers are today to be found in northeastern Baluchistan, not far from Punjab.Brahui’s own case for antiquity has been strengthened by David MacAlphins discovery of the links between Elamite.Similarly connections have been seen between Proto-Dravidian and the Uralic languages of Eastern Europe and Siberia, and this would also suggest that there were once Dravidian speakers in latitudes much further to the north than today. There are strong hints towards linking the official Indus language to the Dravidian family”, says Irfan Habib. Shareen Ratnagar in her book “Understanding Harrappa Civilization in the Greater Indus Valley says “Harrappan language was probably agglutinative or a language which added suffixes to an unchanging root. This feature is characteristic of the Dravidian language family than the Indo-Aryan text; the rgveda shows Dravidian influence (indicating that early Indo-Aryans had some contact with Dravidian speakers) make it likely that the language of the Harrappans was a Dravidian one. (Note, also, that Brahui, spoken in the hills of southeastern Baluchistan is a Dravidian language) It will be of great interest to note that Ainul Hag Faridkoti in his book “ Urdu zaban ki Qadeem Tareekh (Urdu: The History of ancient Urdu) and in ‘Pre-Aryan origin of Pakistani languages: A monograph” claims that the first languages of the present day Pakistan are Dravidian. Bertil Tikkanen “On Burushaski and other Ancient substrata in the north western South Asia” asserts that Pakistani languages have a Dravidian substratum. The evidence for the presence of the substratum is the presence of retroflex consonants which do not exists in Iranian or European members of the Indo European family of languages. Iravatham Mahadevan’s book:” The Indus script texts, concordance and tables “ helps in deciphering the Indus script, some claim.. Sathur Sekaran’s valuable contribution in proving that Indusscript is Dravidian also deserves special mention. Dr.N.Mahalingam in his article in the book” Ancient India “ observes thus: “though eminent scholars like Heras, Parpola, Kamil Zvelebil, FairServices and Mahadevan have already clearly established that the Indus valley script has to be read only as a Dravidian language, it is the decipherment of the script of the Indus by Dr. M Ramachandran and Dr.R.Madhivanan which is the first cogent and systematic effort which can be stated as the test of vigorous scholarship’ In another scholarly analysis by M. Sundar Raj in his article Tamil Grammer Rules (Tholkappiam) a new truth emerges. He lists the Gods found in Rigveda as 33 gods, and gives a break up. Adityas 12, Vasus 8. Rudras 11, Vasatkara 1, Prajapathi1,so totaling 33. The assertion of Rigveda to restrict the number of gods to 33 baffles M.Sundar Raj, which goes into the question of the rationale of this particular scheme of classification. He refers the Tamil Grammar Tholkappiam particularly on alphabets and finds those 33 letters in Tamil script to be the clue for this particular scheme of classification of 33 gods in Rigveda. 12 Vowels, 18 consonants, 1 Aidham, I Kutrialugaram, 1 Kutrialigaram together makes to the 33 letters. This is a marvelous new line open for research. M.Sundar Raj’s views need further deeper consideration. “ At first stage of impact between the highly developed Dravidian civilization and the nomadic and vigorous Aryan people, a process of civilization of the latter took place, as elsewhere, leading to the birth of Sanskrit language and the evolution of Sanskrit literary conventions from the Dravidian base. The first result was the coming into being of a mixed language, which we today call Sanskrit. The material for the literary compositions in this language were taken from the culture of the teachers, who obviously were Dravidians, and who found in this process a convenient and secretive way of preserving their culture with a key only known to themselves. These early compositions must have been the work of small groups or schools, working in conclaves independently, but with the same inherited material. Long afterwards an attempt appears to have been made to bring together and systematize the whole material, whence the Vedas, as we know now emerged. But by this time the Dravidian origin of the language and culture was forgotten, not merely due to the lapse of time, but also apparently as an outcome of cultural elimination. Thus the key to the puzzle has remained lost now”, opines M.Sundarraj. The admixtures and adulterations carried out in the languages of the invaders and the subdued indigenous people needs a specialized study to establish the origins of many concepts including the Godhood. An impartial enquiry will bring to light which are the Dravidian or Aryan origins of many social customs, religious practices and literary products including grammar, and unless an unbiased attempt is made in search of truth fabricated truths will rule the roost. It is true that cultural elimination had left a deep adverse impact on the Tamil literary history. The burning away of palm-leaf inscriptions in Bogi fire, and the habit of throwing Tamil texts in Adi-perukku are designed well to serve the process of cultural elimination well, thereby Tamils lost numerous texts which could have been of greater help in reconstruction of the literary and other history. In this age of Netizens , Tamil citizens of various countries are engaged in preserving the palm leaf texts as digital texts, and of particular mention is that of Mr.Na.Kannan who resides in Germany ( ). In Karnataka and in Orissa there are many stone inscriptions and cave paintings which have to be deciphered, and like U.V.Swaminatha Iyer if many Tamilians look for Tamil Manuscripts from Museums and other places all over the world , lot of hidden history could be unraveled. So far we have seen the opinion of various scholars who firmly held that the text and language of the Indus script is Dravidian. But there is a school, which is hell bent upon denying anything about “ Dravidian “ and they call it as a British conspiracy to divide and rule such Aryan invasion theories were invented, forgetting their own rigvedic hymns. In nutshell this is what that school goes on shouting from all possible platforms. Why so? Let me quote John Hinnells and Eric Sharpe from their book “ Hinduism “ which will reveal the designs of these cultural eliminators.” Until the discovery of the Indus Valley Civilization, the development of literature and culture in India was always credited to the Aryans. In 1920 archaeologists announced the discovery of extensive urban ruins in the Indus valley, which predated earliest archaeological sources and this caused scholars to reexamine their views on the different phases of Indian culture. The Rig Veda that speaks in such derogatory terms of the enemies subdued from by the Aryan tribes, gives the impression that they were all savage barbarians. “ There is another scholar who speaks about the conspiracy not of the British but of the nomadic invaders. “ The Brahmins for centuries have degraded the original inhabitants of India with the intention of self elevation, preservation and oppression. These ancient dwellers in India were Dravidians, and in fact, their culture had developed a highly sophisticated way of life. The existence of Brahui tribe in Baluchistan to the west of Indus, who speak a Dravidian language like South Indian Tamil, gives the evidence that a migration of people or culture did occur. Also the Harrappan religion shows many similarities with the elements of Hinduism, which are especially popular in the present Dravidian culture. “ (A.L.Basham in The Wonder that was India p 27) However in pursuance of an attempt to systematically bury the truth an assertion began to be widely made that the Indus Valley civilization was not only Aryan, but also Vedic or even post-vedic.” Some professional archaeologists have embraced this view, though it might be contrary to what they had held earlier. The basic argument advanced by this school is that the main features of the Indus Civilization are quite consistent with those of the society and culture inferable from the rig veda.” Irfan Habib smashes all these assumptions put forward as arguments that make no sense. “ We shall consider the question of the reconcibility of the Rig veda, with what we know of the Indus valley civilization. Since the Rigveda is preeminently a religious text, consisting mainly of hymns to deities, the crucial area of comparison must be religious one. What the seals and copper amulets tell us is that the Indus deities were mostly zoomorphic, represented by the various animals, the most prominent animal being the Unicorn, the mythical one horned humpless bull, other animals include the bison, elephant, humped bull and rhinoceros, in the order of the frequency of the occurrence. The great rigvedic deities are however, practically all anthrophormic in conception (that is idealized human or superhuman forms) and zoomorphism is practically absent. Sarama is a dog like female deity in the late rigvedic hymn, but even here the contrast continues. The Indus seals give no evidence of a similar canine deity (nor is the dog itself pictured on the seals). We may note that the cow so highly priced in the Rigveda and at least at one place deified, is not at all shown on the seals, where the honour belongs to the bull alone. The horse and the camel, sought in gifts by the rigvedic seers, are absolutely absent from these seals. On the other hand, the rigveda shows no perception of the mythical unicorn, or assign any sanctity to the animals like the elephant, rhinoceros or tiger. The rigveda has nothing similar to the composite animals (tigers body, bulls horn, elephant trunks, for sample) on the Indus seals. Among the Indus day figurines found in private houses, representations of the Mother Goddess are particularly numerous. The rigveda has no female deity that is either as prominent or similarly linked to any fertility cult. There is no rigvedic goddess either, who has the body of a tiger, as an Indus cylinder seal. The lack of similarity continues when one considering the ways of disposing the dead. The Indus people buried their dead and there is no evidence at all of cremation. The rigveda on the other hand, recognizes cremation as the principal method, using the word non cremation (an-agnidaghal) for burial.” Whatever logic is there in these argument, the sadists who want to deny Dravidian people of anything that is great, continue their single point agenda to spread untruths. The Discover Magazine in the following beautiful words describes the greatness of the Dravidian civilization. “ No golden tomb, no fancy ziggurats. Four thousand years ago city builders in the Indus valley made deals, not war, and created a stable, peaceful and prosperous culture. Neither Vedas nor the Bible made any mention of this magnificent civilization. Yet they were a highly organized and stupendously successful civilization. They built some of the worlds first written languages, and thrived in an area twice the size of Egypt and Mesopotamia for 700 years. “ Well we have to look at the way Indus came to be associated with this civilization. “ Harappa, in Sahiwel District of West Punjab, Pakistan had long been known to archaeologists as an extensive site on the Ravi river, but its significance as a major city of an early great civilization remained unrecognized until the discovery of Mohenja daro near the banks of the Indus, in the Larkana District of Sindh by R.D.Banerjee in 1922. Sir John Marshall, the then Director General of the Archaeological Survey of India used the term Indus civilization for the culture discovered at harappa and mohenja daro, a term doubly apt because of the geographical context implied in the name Indus and the presence of cities implied in the world civilization.” Says Irfan habib in his book the Indus Valley Civilization “p 16. In spite of the fact that this civilization is known as Indus because of the geography and is called as Dravidian because of the language and culture, yet the cultural eliminators are for centuries at pains to remove all traces of Dravidian content or to be more specific, the indigenous people’s greatness, whose culture they had taken over by way of admixture and adulteration. In 1893 V.Warren, an American wrote the book “ The Paradise found or the Cradle of Human race at the North Pole. Heavily adopting the views put forth in that book Balagangadhara Tilak wrote a book ‘The Artic home of Vedas’. He and other of his school of thought, till date are burning midnight oil to aryanize a Dravidian culture. In Ukraine during 1966 Yu Kanygin brought out his book “ The Path of the Aryans: The role of Ukraine in the spiritual History of Mankind”. This book says that Rama’s birthplace is not Ayodya but near the Driper river. It says Rama is from a tribe known as Druid. It will be of interest to know that Rama, whether a ruler or mythological hero, is a Dravidian born in the tribe of Druids near the Driper River.

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Part 2 Indus Valley, A Dravidian Civilization?


Part 2

While such etymological similarities drive home a picture, the cultural eliminators have now started to claim that the word Brahman has got its roots in Abraham. Abraham becomes Brahman. If that were so Christians and Hindus have common origin, and the propaganda of hate has no rational basis. In Russia a book G.Grinevich released Praslavyanskaya Pismenmost in 1993. In that book he claims to have deciphered the Indus script and according to him it belongs to the Slavs. The language spoken by the people of Indus valley is Slav, he goes on. He even claims that the word Russia has its etymological roots in Sanskrit. Russ denotes white people and from such Sanskrit word Russia came, he says. He further adds that Motcham (Heaven) is the root for the name of the city of Moscow. All these planned propaganda apart, now we are facing with a situation wherein the Indusvalley civilization is being renamed or rechristianed, in order to sustain the untruth that it is not Dravidian. “It has often been suggested that this was the civilization of the Saraswati river, not the Indus. Vedic literature gives importance to a river known as the Saraswati which it said, flowed from north east towards the lower Indus Valley through what are now provinces of Haryana, North Rajasthan and Bahawalpur, and is identified by the mostly dry river bed that is known as Ghagger in India and further downstream in Pakistan, as the Hakra. It has been said that there are several relic mounds of the period (khalibangan for example) spread along the banks of the Saraswathi river system, more sites than the alluvial valley of the Indus. Thus it has been claimed that what we have here is saraswathi rather than Induscivilzation” This is the argument put forth by those who want to name it as Saraswathi civilization. Shareen Rat agar points out the difficulties in accepting this hypothesis. “ First fewer Harrappan sites lie along the banks of Ghaggar-Hakra than is made out. Second there is no proof at all that the mighty sarasvati of the Rigveda was in fact this (now dry) river- the identification is itself open to doubt. Third when active the Ghaggar-Hakra was in any case a tributary to the Indus. Last, the term Saraswati conjures up a kind of identity between the culture reflected in the Vedic literature and that excavated at harappan sites when, in fact there is hardly any correspondence. The label Saraswathi for all reasons, is difficult to defend on scholarly grounds “ (p7 Understanding Harappa Civilization in the Greater Indus Valley) Irfan habib says, “ The Indus basin includes the area along the Saraswathi, a small seasonal river, so that coupling of saraswathi with the Indus (Sindhu) has no geographical justification” Dr.R.Madhivanan says that his researches in Rajasthan and Gujarat revealed that the local people refer the dead and missing river as “Quari kanya “. Quari became Gowri in Sanskrit and in Punjabi the word Gaur added as suffix, are all derived from Kumari, and the Tamil settlers not forgetting their origin had named this river as Kumari Kanya, after Kanya kumari, and thereby the so called Saraswathi river’s name is Kanya Kumari river named from Tamil sources.. He also says in Saurastra, the Tamil settlers have named another river as Kaveri. He also says that if at all a mythical river Saraswathi had existed it flowed only inAfghanistan and not in India. The dreams of those who want to change the name of Indus into Saraswathi will receive the quake like hit and be smashed beyond redemption, putting an end to their futile exercise in renaming a globally known civilization. Well apart from archaeology in land now a new research is being made out in underwater archaeology. The National Institute of Ocean Technology, Chennai, last year unknowingly photographed the ruins of a vast ancient city submerged 40 m under the sea, while they took sonar photographs of the ocean floor. More dredging of the site brought out roughly 2000 artifacts, which were examined by the Birbal Shani Institute of Palebotany in Lucknow and National Geographic Research Institute in Hyderabad. BSIP dated all the artifacts to be around 5500 BC and NGRI pushed the date back to 7500 BC. This discovery must have woken up the Dravidian people, especially the Tamils whose literary evidences prove that the origins of Tamils lay in Kumarikandam, the lost continent in the Indian Ocean. If lost cities could be found in Gulf of Cambay off the Gujarat coast, why not we search for the lost continent of Kumarikandam, the homeland of the Dravidians. InBangalore an exhibition of the artifacts found from Gulf of Cambay and our Poompuhar were displayed. Video pictures taken in underwater were shown, and to our delight the the scientist Graham Cook said that Poompuhar had been submerged before 9500 years, thus even prior to Gulf of Cambay, our Poompuhar had a civilization dating back to 9500 years. These discoveries, which had taken place last year, are of great importance in our Review of the Recent Discoveries on Indus Civilization. Indus valley is only the catacomb of the Dravidian civilization as the destruction spoken in rigvedic hymns are to be believed. Instead the cradle of the Dravidian civilization is in Kumari kandam, otherwise called as Lemurian continent and Gondwana land. Now that leads us to a multi pronged research approach. Because quest towards truth is a must. In a show in the National Geographical Channel titled the Journey of Man an answer was given, which gives us light on the direction to be pursued. “ So far our way of investigating our ancestry has been to dig up ancient civilizations. Yet bones do not answer the question of evolution, but genes do,” said scientist Spencer Wells. “ So we started mapping of a family tree of the entire planet taking blood samples from every part of the world. We worked backwards, through elimination and matching, and found that it was a strain of the sangene that was most common across the planet. Every person on earth is part of a connected family, scientists say with certainty, delivering blow to those who claim superiority by race and birth. The mapping of International rice Genome Sequencing project follows mapping of human genes. In such scientific quests, interesting information trickles down. The estimated gene in a human being lies between 30,000 to 40,000 whereas Indica rice contains 45,000 to 56,000 genes. Japanica Rice contains 63,000 genes. Man and mouse are cousins, each descended from a small mammal that split into species towards the end of dinosaur era. Despite 75 million years of separate evolution only about 300 genes, 1 % of the 30,000 possessed by the mouse have no obvious counterpart in the human genome, says Nature Magazine. Taking the cue from these scientific quests, I feel that there is a strong necessity for mapping all the worlds’ languages. Of course UNESCO had brought out Atlases and strives hard to redeem endangered languages. 18 countries make an attempt together in a Universal Network Language project, aimed at using computers to demolish the Tower of Babel. The purpose behind this project is of course trade promotion by way of making translations easy and faster. But I feel that to understand the etymology of every word spoken in every language living or dear a globalized attempt should be made by UNESO or the Universities of the nations in partnership to harness their common knowledge to track down the etymology of every word spoken. It is quest undertaken by the Greatest Tamilian of the past century Devaneya Paavanar and his approach needs scientific sanction and pooling of the worlds knowledge to arrive at the cultural and linguistic roots including the Primitive language of the Mankind. Already scientists are engaged in the quest and had succeeded initially. Mr.Wolfgang Enand of Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig, Germany in the Nature Magazine dated 14 th August 2002 states proudly that “First language gene is discovered. Scientists think they have found the first of the many genes that gave humans speech. Without it language and human culture may never had developed. Key changes to a gene in the last 2,00,000 years of human evolution appear to be the driving force. The gene FOXP2, was first definitely linked with human knowledge.” Having found the first gene that gave humans speech, the quest towards tracing the first language spoken by man had gained impetus. Meanwhile treading the path laid down by Deveneya Paavanar, Dr.R.Mathivanan opines that a new approach called language archaeology ,be used to trace the roots of various words spoken in various languages which have common root from the Primitive language. Dr. Robert Caldwell’s Comparative Grammar of Dravidian Languages published in 1856 is still hailed as a remarkable turning point in tracing the glorious past, yet even after so many decades, no serious attempt is being made to update this with all the information we have, extending to all the languages of the Dravidian family, including ones spoken in Pakistan and Northern India. Pondicherry Institute of Linguistics and Culture, International school of Dravidian Linguistics at Thiruvananthapuram, Dravidian University at Kuppam in Andhra Pradesh and International Institute of Tamil studies at Chennai must join hands to produce an updated Grammar on Dravidian Linguistics, which must cover other Dravidian family of languages spread all over the world. This will be of great help in establishing the claim of Tamil as the primary classical language. The Tamil epic Silapathigaram provides us with the literary evidence about the deluge that washed away a landmass in the Indian Ocean. Mr. James Churchward by studying various ancient texts, it is claimed, had discovered the existence of a long lost continent with an advanced civilization that 60,000 years ago had sunk below the Pacific Ocean after a cataclysmic earthquake. There were 64 million people who died in the sinking, and that is dated back over 50,000 years. The Hawaiian Islands and the Pacific islands are the remaining mountain peaks of the lost continent. Well if Mr. James Churhward’s literary evidence cannot be brushed aside, we cannot also brush aside the Silapathikaram couplet. If a detailed study is conducted in Hawaii and Pacific islands perhaps we may be able to know about the lost continent, the homeland of Tamils. Lemuria is otherwise called Pacifica or Mu. James Churchward in his book “ The Lost continent of Mu” maintains that” vast knowledge of science, ancient art and history, mythology and occult” existed in the lost continent of Lemuria. “ The garden of Eden was not in Asia but now on a sunken continent in the Pacific ocean,” he proclaims and adds “ The biblical story of Creation came first not from the peoples of Nile or the Euraphrates valley but from this now submerged continent, Mu- Motherland of Man. Please note that it is being called Motherland and not Fatherland, as is usual with the cultural eliminators opposed to Dravidian viewpoints. In his book “ The Children of Mu” this scholar says, “ Sixty three million people lived on the now lost continent of Mu. Over 2,00,000 years ago. The children of Mu became the first influential people on earth…. America was one of the first colonies of Mu… Mu had an incredibly sophisticate government, flowering of culture and scientific technology.” Much of the Lemurian civilization lived in homes with transparent roofs. They were free from stress and disease lived to be hundreds of years old, developing their E.S.P abilities through nearly 40,000 years of societal practice and experimentation. With that many centuries of evolution, Lemurians gained their reputation or telepathy, astral travel and teleportation-making land vehicles unnecessary. They were primarily socially a vegetarian, agricultural, outdoor, organic culture that worked in harmony with nature and the land, having little use for scientific technology.” It is to be noted that we always take it as a gospel, when it comes from the white man’s mouth. But we realize little that scholars like Devaneya Paavaanar are not among those who have lost their mental equilibrium nor they are nincompoops, but they are treasure troves of knowledge, which is a common good delivered to Tamil people. Speaking about Lemurian Tamils Paavaanar will trace the development of Tamil between 100,000 and 50,000 BC.Spencer Wells and his team of scientists have now found out that the first man originated before 60,000 years. We Tamils somehow have become addicted to the use of the phrase Two Thousand years old to claim a hoary past for our culture. Christian calendar alone cannot be the period of inception of the Dravidian culture. Millions of years ago what happened, we have to indulge in a quest, and not be satisfied with the accidental unearthing of the Indus Valley Civilization. From Australia to Arizona there exists a mythological proof of the lost continent. To quote from a Hopi legend ‘ down on the bottom of the seas lie all the proud cities and the worldly treasures corrupted with evil. Faced with such disaster, some people hid inside the earth while the others escaped by crossing the ocean on reed rafts, using the islands as stepping-stones. The same story to escape to dry land appears in the Popul Vu epic of the Quiche Maya and the Modoc tribe near Mount Shasta among others. “ According to the Rosicrucian’s of San Jose, California, the disastrous cycle began with volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, and the collapse of the subterranean gas belts. Magnetic waves started moving around the globe, and Lemuria began to go under. Fortunately there was time enough for small groups to salvage part of Lemurias precious wisdom, which was stored in crystals. Some colonists reached India and from there Mesopotamia and Egypt, while others migrated eastwards on crude rafts to the Americas, forming the racial core of the earliest Indian tribes. So it is not Silapathigaram alone, the stories of various tribes speak about the lost continent, and it is here, in the Indian Ocean south of Kanyakumari the National institute ofOceanography must engage in underwater archaeological quest to find out the cradle of the Dravidian civilization that spread from South to North encompassing the Indus valley and countries beyond. The Super Continent of Gondwanaland was made up of South America, Africa, Antarctica, India and Australia.” Gondwanaland is named after the upper Paleozoic and Mesozoic formations of the Gondwanaland district of central India. which display a number of shared geologic features ( The Gondwana Beds). In the late nineteenth century, on the basis of comparative geological evidence, the Austrian geologist, Edward Stress suggested that the continents of Africa, South America, Australiaand India were once part of a single super continent, which he called Gondwanaland.” Alfred Wagener, known as the father of the theory of Continental drift, in his publication around 1912 said that “ looking at the global map it would appear that the continents could be brought together to fit like a jigsaw puzzle” Now everyone admits that the solid upper earth floats on asthenosphere, the lithosphere slips. “The vast Himalayan range was created when a plate of the earth crust carrying the landmass of India collided with the plate carrying Asia some 45 million years ago having traveled 5000 kilometers nearly due north across the expanse now occupied by the Indian ocean’ opines D.P.Meckinzie and J, G.Sclater in their article “ The evolution of the Indian Ocean’. Apart from the literary evidences, when we look forward to understand the evolution of Dravidian civilization we will have to get answers over the puzzle about the Indian Ocean, wherein the cradle of the Dravidian civilizations remains buried. Scholars say that” Many attempts have been made to guess precisely how south America, Africa, India, Antarctica and Australia were once joined to form the primitive continent known as Gondwanaland. There is as yet no general agreement as to how this should be done. The rift between Australia and Antarctica is good. The arrangement of all five major units however is controversial and the original position of Madagascar is unknown. The principal difficulty is that no magnetic lineation has yet been discovered on the older parts of the floor of the Indian Ocean between the continents. We therefore cannot continue to reassemble continents by the same methods we have used to trace the movement of India. During the past 75 million years. There is also no other structure like the Ninety East Ridge which was recognized as a transform fault even before the magnetic lineation were mapped. Fortunately, the area of the sea floor in which the record presumably lies hidden is not great. Last year a series of deep holes were drilled in the floor of the Indian Ocean by the drilling vessel” Glomar Challenger. The data from these holes have confirmed and amplified our reconstruction of the history of the ocean. They have also added to the evidence needed to reconstruct Gondwanaland” “Meanwhile one can speculate about the original juxtapositions of India, Antarctica and Australia. One guess is that existing reconstructions are wrong because they have attempted to remove practically every piece of the ocean floor between the continents. That approach has been favoured because all continents believed to have formed the Gondwanaland show evidence of having been covered by a huge ice cap 270 million years ago. We know from recent glaciations in the Northern hemisphere that continental ice caps can simultaneously cover landmasses that are separated by oceans. It may be that a small ocean basin comparable perhaps to the artic Ocean, was nestled somewhere among the southern landmass 270 million years ago. It may be out of our ignorance of its existence and shape that is preventing the successful reconstruction of Gondwanaland “ This is how the Indian Ocean puzzle remains according to D.P.Meckenzie and J.G.Slater. And it is the duty of our government as well of nations that border within Indian Ocean must indulge in a joint search for answers to these puzzles. Unless the submerged Kumari Kandam is subjected to in depth study, it will be impossible to back up our literary evidences with scientific proofs, and the National Institute of Oceanography must be engaged to unravel these facts. While excavating Arikamedu, all efforts to look into the ocean floor near Pondicherry for further evidences is a must. And let the quest to find the cradle of mankind as well as our homeland begin. Truth is awaiting us and we must march towards truth and in pursuance of truth all efforts must be made by Tamils all over the world apart from fighting falsehoods spread day in and day out , against Dravidian culture.

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